HER2

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in a percentage of solid tumors such as breast, gastric, esophageal and pediatric bone cancer (osteosarcoma). HER2 expression is associated with more aggressive diseases, increased risk of relapse and decreased overall survival, and is an important target for immunotherapy.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women, regardless of race or ethnicity, after certain types of skin cancer.1 The National Cancer Institute reports that 124.8 per 100,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer annually, and that roughly 12.3 percent of women will be diagnosed with breast cancer at some point.2 HER2 expressing tumors affect approximately 25 percent of people with breast cancer.2 Rates for breast cancer have been stable over the last 10 years, and the survival rate for the disease after five years is 89.4 percent.3 According to the American Cancer Society, roughly 40,290 women in the U.S will have died from the disease in 2015.4

Gastric Cancer

Gastric, or stomach, cancer affects primarily older people, according to the American Cancer Society.5 The estimated number of cases in 2015 was 24,590, with 15,540 diagnosed in men and 9,050 diagnosed in women.5 Less than 1 percent of people are estimated to be diagnosed with the disease during their lifetimes, and rates of gastric cancer have been falling roughly 1.5 percent annually over the last 10 years.6 Although the disease is rare, it is serious, with a survival rate of only 29.3 percent five years after diagnosis.6

Esophageal Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 16,980 cases of esophageal cancer were to be diagnosed in 2015.7 The disease is up to four times more common in men than in women, with an estimated 15,590 cases diagnosed in men and 3,410 in women in 2015.7 About 1 percent of cancers in the U.S. are esophageal cancers, and the rates have remained fairly stable for many years.7 Although many people diagnosed with esophageal cancer die from the disease, the prognosis has improved and 20 percent of people with esophageal cancer survive at least five years after diagnosis, compared to 5 percent 50 years ago.7

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is the most common cancer developing in the bone, and it most often occurs in children and young adults.8 Overall, osteosarcoma is rare, with only 800 new cases diagnosed per year in the U.S., with 400 of these diagnosed in children and teenagers.9 While rates of bone and joint cancers have been rising slightly over the past 10 years, death rates have been falling and the five-year survival rate after diagnosis is 66.7 percent.10

References

1 Centers for Disease Control. Breast Cancer Statistics. Retrieved  December 7, 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/statistics/index.htm

2 National Cancer Institute. A Story of Discovery: HER2’s Genetic Link to Breast Cancer Spurs Development of New Treatments. Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://www.cancer.gov/research/progress/discovery/HER2

3 National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Female Breast Cancer. Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html

4 American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about breast cancer? Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-key-statistics

5 American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about stomach cancer? Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/stomachcancer/detailedguide/stomach-cancer-key-statistics

6 National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Stomach Cancer. Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/stomach.html

7 American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about cancer of the esophagus? Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/esophaguscancer/detailedguide/esophagus-cancer-key-statistics

8 American Cancer Society. What is osteosarcoma? Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/osteosarcoma/detailedguide/osteosarcoma-what-is-osteosarcoma

9 American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about osteosarcoma? Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/osteosarcoma/detailedguide/osteosarcoma-key-statistics

10 National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Bone and Joint Cancer. Retrieved December 7, 2015 from http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/bones.html